Electric Cars or Electric are the future in the automobile industry. We will learn the basic details of electric cars, it’s type, advantages, disadvantages, applications, etc.
Let’s understand the basic introduction of electric cars or vehicles. The world is moving towards consuming lesser fuel and reducing pollution. We already know that cars or any vehicles are driven by fossil fuels, like oil or gas and each vehicle produces pollutants that are dangerous for our nature.
Hence, to save our planet, to save our nation, to save our entity, the medium is required to change from fossil fuel to electricity and the concept of electric cars or electric vehicles comes into the picture.
Now, electric cars are making their way into commercial markets in developed countries and it is also expected to come to developing countries soon.
As electric cars don’t use any fossil fuel like oil or gas, pollution will not be encountered like petrol cars or diesel cars, or gas-driven cars.
Electric cars or vehicles (EVs) run on electricity. We have already learned that electricity can be produced from various sources like Nuclear and also renewable sources like,
Electric vehicles seem to be the future of automobiles along with self-driving cars.
Let’s dive a bit into the details of Electric vehicles (EVs).
In simple words, electric vehicles are those that use the electrical power stored in the battery rather than the internal combustion engines.
The components of the EVs are the same as normal vehicles only the energy used to propel the vehicle is electric energy.
Let’s know more about the components of electric vehicles.
Apart from the propelling power components used in the EVs all the other components are the same as other normal ICE-based vehicles. These are,
The electric motor is responsible for converting electrical energy into mechanical energy. The mechanical energy converted, you can call it rotational power or kinetic energy to wheels. There are various advantages of using the electric motor instead of ICE.
So, the designers get the freedom to design the car with more space and comfortability. Mostly the brushless type DC motors are used in electric vehicles.
Some hybrid electric cars have the generator-motor type which performs propulsion as well as regeneration.
The reducer as the name suggests controls the rotation per minute (RPM) of the electric motor.
The reducer’s job is to reduce the motor RPM to a required level so that the EVs can get the advantage of higher torque.
The function of the battery in the electric vehicle is the same as that of the battery in all of our devices.
But there is one complexity in case of batteries. If you employ the larger capacity battery the space available will be much less due to the size of the battery. If the solution is looked out for this problem, the batteries with higher density should be used which are small and lightweight.
As the prices of Lithium-Ion batteries are decreasing the electric vehicles are getting affordable. If we take a look at the battery life, it depends on various factors.
The inverter has the role of converting the direct current to an alternating current. Later this current is used by an electric motor.
The electric vehicle battery consists of tens of thousands of cells. They have to operate as a single entity this is where the battery management system becomes useful.
The battery works best in optimal temperatures. It gets affected in lower temperatures; the charging speed of the battery will become slow in a lower temperature environment.
The battery heater is used to avoid this problem. It maintains the ideal temperatures of the battery regardless of the outside temperatures.
The controller is known as the electric power control unit. It controls the overall flow of electric current throughout the vehicle.
The battery produces DC current i.e., direct current, and the controller transforms this DC current into AC current and helps to regulate the flow of energy from the battery to the vehicles.
Unlike the carburetor used in IC engines, the controller will also,
If we summarise the role of the controller, as follows:
In short, this component decides how the Electric vehicle will work. Also, the EPCU consists of the vehicle control unit. It looks out every mechanism and control in the electric vehicle.
So these are the basic components of an electric vehicle, now let’s know how does the electric car work?.
The working of an electric car is plain and simple easy to understand. We know already that electric vehicles have onboard charged batteries. The battery is charged first, then the battery transfers the current/energy to the electric motor.
Where the reducer reduced the RPM of the electric motor to work as per requirement. The power is then transferred to the wheels. If you want to understand it better here is the pointwise working principle,
There are various types of electric vehicles. They are differentiated on the basis of how electric power is used.
Let’s check them out one by one.
These are based on electric energy only. They have the energy stored in the battery just like we discussed in the above sections. They are also known as battery electric vehicles. These are the ones that might come into your mind while thinking about electric vehicles.
Lots of major electric car companies like,
These vehicles can almost 200-400kms on a single charge.
Hybrid electric vehicles are one of those which are powered by petrol as well as electricity.
The examples of HEVs are,
These vehicles combine electric energy as well as fuel energy. These are the most selling vehicles from the last decade. Japan is the main spot of these vehicles selling almost 5 million hybrid EVs.
These are also known as extended-range electric vehicles (REV). REV has the auxiliary combustion engine used as a supplement to charge the battery and not as a primary source of power.
These plug-in hybrid electric vehicles can generate power from regenerative braking as well as plugging into the power supply.
There are always certain advantages and disadvantages of any technology. Let’s know the advantages and disadvantages of electric vehicles.
As electric cars are running due to the power generated from the battery, it needs to be recharged once the charge is drained. It depends on the capacity of the battery, mileage, etc.
Now, to charge the battery, there are various electric vehicle charging stations across the globe.
Many companies are operated these charging stations, like
You can refer top-20 electric vehicle charging companies on the internet.
This is one of the major parts of interest of the electric vehicles. Rising pollution of fuel depletion resulted in rising interest in electric vehicles nowadays.
If you drove the electric vehicle you will definitely appreciate it for the less noise generation by the car. We all know how frustrating to hear the car sounds in crowded places or on busy streets.
Electric cars are more convenient to recharge and use. You don’t need to go running to fuel stations. You can charge your vehicle even with a household electric supply.
These cars have a low center of gravity that makes EVs stable on the road. In case of an accident, the electric supply can be cut directly along with opening the airbag to avoid serious injuries to occupants.
If we go back a decade buying an electric car would be a big blow to your pocket. But now with all the new technologies and dropping prices of batteries, it’s possible to own an electric vehicle suitable for your pocket.
Also, there are tax incentives offered by the government in some countries that make it even better.
The electric vehicle operation depends on the electric motor. The lubrication like in the case of IC engine-powered vehicles is not necessary.
Electric cars have the simplest driving experiences compared to other vehicles.
You just need your foot on the accelerator pedal other one brake pedal and a hands-on steering wheel that’s it.
As we have discussed earlier the Lithium-Ion batteries are used in electric vehicles. These can get charged quickly as well as can achieve about 200-400kms on a single charge.
The cost of batteries is going down with the new improvements. The batteries could last up to 10 years.
When you want to buy the electric vehicles, you have to pay pretty much hefty price. Normal persons couldn’t afford these vehicles as of now. Even the normal vehicles are prices at $30000-$40000.
For luxury, you will have to pay even more. The cost is expected to come down but as of now, you may be paying at least $10000 more for EVs.
When you want to go on vacation away from the city, charging stations problems might come up. The cities have the charging stations but if you more away they are rarely available.
These reasons are getting lesser as the electric vehicles are getting more popular.
If you are deciding to go on a trip you might need to worry about the range of the EVs. They have 400-450km of range as of now. But with the non-availability of charging stations, this problem gets even worse.
Most electric cars take hours for charging the battery.
The most abundant sources of electricity available right now are non-renewable sources of energy. It will be the same thing as that of IC engines if the source is from non-renewable sources.
This problem can be eliminated by the use of renewable energy sources.
There are many electric vehicles are in the market, as follows:
Wrapping up, electric vehicles are in the market for a long time. It’s just that they are gaining popularity as of now because of environmental benefits.
There is a lot to advance in the case of electric vehicles. But surely, if sources of electricity generation can be managed it will be a big step in saving the environment.
Read more articles,
You cannot copy content of this page